The Best Feet Forward (BFF) Locomotion Lab

My lab, the Best Feet Forward (BFF) Locomotion Lab, now has it’s own page and a Twitter account, @BFFLocomotion.  Follow us as we follow animals in motion!

Best Foot Forward Lab Logo

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Combining physics and vertebrate paleontology

Often, students in biology and paleontology wonder why it is that we “force” them to take physics.  I ought to know — I was one of those students!  It wasn’t until later in graduate school that I began to appreciate the application of physics to matters of dinosaur movement.  I believe part of this reticence among many future biologists and paleontologists to embrace and understand physics is that they feel (as I once did) that it was mostly the arena of engineers and cosmologists.

Yet, the questions we are often so interested in about living organisms and those in the fossil record relate to physics.  How did they move?  Were they moving in water?  How could their heart pump blood to their head?  How did a giant sauropod move, let alone stand, without breaking its bones?  So, if you are interested in dinosaurs and other magnificent animals of the past in the context of how they went about their daily lives, then you are interested in physics.

When I first began teaching vertebrate paleontology back in 2003, my goal then as now was to communicate to biology and paleontology students how modern vertebrate skeletons and body form are related to their function.  Too often, in my opinion, we tend to emphasize taxonomy and relationships over how, as scientists, we reconstruct paleobiology.  To be clear, taxonomy and the study of evolutionary relationships (systematics) are hugely important — they provide the context in which we test evolutionary hypotheses.  However, I wanted to strike a balance in my courses of teaching how the vertebrates were related in combination with how they lived their lives and responded to the physical world.

Today in my vertebrate paleontology course at Richard Stockton College, I hope a new group of students has begun to appreciate this intersection among biology, paleontology, and physics.  In the lab, students used a small wind tunnel and “smoke” from a fog machine to test how three different fossil fishes may have moved through the water.  I have found it is one thing to talk about Bernoulli’s Principle or discuss friction and pressure drag.  It is a whole other kettle of fish (pun intended) to see for one’s self how body shape actually changes the fluid around it.

Each group of students was assigned a fossil fish to research and model out of clay in lab.  Then, after hypothesizing how they thought their particular fish would behave relative to the water current (or in this case, the air current with “smoke”), they put their models in the wind tunnel, turned on the smoke, and put their hypotheses to the test.  They will later present their findings to the class.  My hope in all of this is that these students appreciate that our hypotheses about past life rely heavily on our models of the present flesh, bone, and physical laws.

Student group modeling and studying the effect of body shape on fluid movement in the early chondrichthyan, _Cladoselache_.

Student group modeling and studying the effect of body shape on fluid movement in the early chondrichthyan, _Cladoselache_.  Our wind tunnel can be seen in the background, upper left.

The _Cladoselache_ model sculpted by students based on data from fossils.

The _Cladoselache_ model sculpted by students based on data from fossils.

The student group studying the heterostracan (jawless fish) _Drepanaspis_.

The student group studying the heterostracan (jawless fish) _Drepanaspis_.

_Drepanaspis_ model.

_Drepanaspis_ model.

The student group studying the osteostracan (jawless fish), _Hemicyclaspis_.

The student group studying the osteostracan (jawless fish), _Hemicyclaspis_.

The _Hemicyclaspis_ model.

The _Hemicyclaspis_ model.

The _Hemicyclaspis_ model in our wind tunnel, sitting on a box of clay to prop it into the (faintly visible) stream of "smoke."

The _Hemicyclaspis_ model in our wind tunnel, sitting on a box of clay to prop it into the (faintly visible) stream of “smoke.”

I want to dedicate this short post to the following people at Richard Stockton College.  First, having a wind tunnel and smoke machine would not have happened at all were it not for the help of our shop staff in the Natural Sciences — Bill Harron, Mike Farrell, and Mike Santoro.  They worked on this small scale wind tunnel with my input, and helped give our students a wonderful lab experience.

Second, Christine Shairer was invaluable for her help with getting me the materials my students and I needed to do this small-scale experiment.

Finally, third, Dr. Jason Shulman in physics who is a colleague, research collaborator, and one of the few physicists willing to put up with a paleontologist who is constantly asking what I can only assume are ignorant and humorously simple questions.  If only I had had such an enthusiastic professor when I was questioning why I had to learn physics all those years ago!

New students … same old rats

Just a short post to introduce you to some of the “newer” students in the Bonnan Lab: Kelsey Gamble and Caleb Bayewu.

Kelsey Gamble in Lab

Kelsey Gamble with Peter the rat, showing off the vest she designed for tracking our furry friends.

Undergraduate Caleb Bayewu with another rat we dubbed Jabba.

Undergraduate Caleb Bayewu with another rat we dubbed Jabba.

Today we were working with some Sprague-Dawley rats to track how much their forelimb is abducted at the elbow (pulled away from the side of the body) during locomotion.  We use an apparatus called the OptiTrack V120 which consists of 3 integrated infrared cameras that send out rapid pulses of IR light.  The rats wear a vest with two markers on the back which gives us the position of their body’s mid-line, and another small marker is affixed to their elbow (with the equivalent of eyelash glue) … with tender loving care, of course.

Peter the rat walking along his track, showing off his tracking vest and the tracking marker on his elbow.

Peter the rat walking along his track, showing off his tracking vest and the tracking marker on his elbow.

Peter the rat was more interested in exploring the lab than being measured for science.

Peter the rat was more interested in exploring the lab than being measured for science.

You know you’re a scientist when after months of trial and error and fiddling with the equipment, we literally jumped for joy today when we successfully recorded all five walking trials!  Why are we doing this?  Stay tuned …

Dr. Bonnan is moving East

I wanted to wait until I could make this announcement official.  Now that everything is in place, I can.  Starting this fall semester 2012, I will be a new Associate Professor in the Biology Program at the Richard Stockton College in New Jersey.  I am honored to be stepping into the position previously held by Dr. Roger Wood, a noted turtle paleontologist, and I am thrilled about the new opportunities this position will give me both in teaching and research.  Of course, as a paleontologist it is exciting to be on the East Coast and close to so many major institutions and museums.  I have already received a very warm welcome from the Stockton community, and I am looking forward to working with my new colleagues at Stockton.

This decision, however, means I will be departing my current position as Associate Professor at Western Illinois University in the Department of Biological Sciences.  WIU gave me an opportunity to begin my career fresh out of graduate school in a tenure-track position, and to build both my teaching and research experience.  I will miss many colleagues and friends at WIU, and I have fond memories of overseeing and advising numerous undergraduate and graduate students in scientific research.

To all my former undergraduate and graduate students, you should know that you have helped me become a better teacher, and a professor always learns more from his students than he imparts to them.

In the near future, I will be updating The Evolving Paleontologist to include information about my courses, office hours, and other ways for students at Stockton to reach and interact with me.  I will also continue to post commentary on all-things evolutionary (but especially dinosaur-y … is that a word?) and in my own lab.

I again feel honored and fortunate to have a career that allows me to continue walking alongside sauropod dinosaurs while exploring the bigger picture of vertebrate functional morphology and evolutionary anatomy.